Wednesday, January 05, 2011

Oral Candidiasis


Oral candidiasis is a very common fungal infection involving the oral cavity mucosa. These infections are caused by saprophytic fungi belonging to the genus candida. Common organisms involved in oral candidiasis include:
Candida albicans
Candida glabrata
Candida tropicalis

Among these organism candida albicans has been implicated as the common causative organism in oral candidiasis. Candida albicans is dimorphic in nature, capable of existing in two forms i.e yeast and hyphal forms. The hyphal form is associated with oral candidiasis. Studies have shown that candida albicans can exist in the oral cavity as normal commensal.

Predisposing factors causing oral candidiasis:

  1. Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus
  2. In HIV positive patients with CD 4 count less than 200/microlitre
  3. Patients with xerostomia – Use of medications in the elderly are the common cause of xerostomia. Medications known to cause xerostomia include: antidepressants, diuretics and drugs with anticholinergic effects.
  4. Use of broad spectrum antibiotics that could alter the normal gut flora.
  5. Use of systemic steroids

Clincially oral candidiasis can present as both erythematous / white forms. White forms are otherwise known as pseudomembranous type / hyperplastic candidiasis.
  You can view the full article here.

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